Diatessaron Manuscripts

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Arabic versions


δια τεσσαρον

The Arabic version of the Gospel Harmony called the Diatessaron ("Out of Four") of Tatian the Syrian (d. late 2nd cent CE).


Stephen Lambden (Ohio University)

The Arabic Translation of the Diatessaron, a Gospel Harmony originally composed around 172 CE.

cf. URLs.

"In the history of the [New Testament] versions, as well as in the early phase of textual developments of the New Testament as a whole, there is no greater and more important name than Tatian" - Arthur Vööbus, Early Versions of the New Testament (1954).

"Isho'dad [ of Merv 9th cent CE] himself, who, in his Preface to the Gospel of Mark, says: "Tatian, disciple of Justin, the philosopher and martyr, selected from the four gospels, and combined and composed a gospel, and called it Diatessaron, i.e., the Combined, ... and upon this gospel Mar Ephraem [ d.373 CE ] commented".

"As one of the earliest witnesses to the text of the Gospels (it is rivaled only by the quotations of Justin, Marcion, and Clement), it occupies a preeminent position in NT textual studies. Employing the four canonical Gospels and, perhaps, one or more extracanonical sources, Tatian wove a single, continuous narrative. He omitted doublets, harmonized discrepancies, and “corrected” omissions found in his source gospels. Although some scholars have seen Tatian’s theology as the impetus for creating a harmony (so both Elze 1960 and Baarda 1969), the idea was patently “in the air,” for we know that Justin used a gospel harmony (Bellinzoni 1967: 140), and that gospel harmonies or synopses were created by Ammonius of Alexandria (Eus., Ep. ad Carp.) and Theophilus of Antioch (Jerome, Ep. ad Algasiam). Practical advantages must also be considered: a harmony would have—perforce—a unified point of view and, thus, been ideal for evangelization; as a compact epitome it would have been easier to transport and cheaper to copy than the separate Gospels." From Peterson art. 'Diatessaron' in Freedman, David Noel ed. The Anchor Bible Dictionary. New York : Doubleday, 1996, c1992, S. 2:189.

Tatian was a pupil of Justyn Martyr in Rome. His originally Greek or Syriac (?) Gospel Harmony was called the Diatessaron ("Compendium," lit. "Through Four") and dates to about 172 [5] CE. Often considered the oldest of the New Testament versions, the Diatessaron was widely used and revered among eastern Christians in Late Antiquity. It was apparently the preferred Gospel text of the orthodox Christians of Edessa. It was on Tatian's Diatessaron that Ephraem the Syrian (306-373 CE) or a member of his `school' wrote an important Commentary which is still extant in Syriac (Ms. Chester Beatty 709) and a few Armenian manuscripts.

The references in the Qur'an to an انجيل Injīl ("Gospel") (an Arabic singular and not a plural suggestive of multiple Gospels) revealed to Jesus and in the possession of 7th century Christians, has been understood by a few scholars to indicate or allude to the Diatessaron of Tatian. A few Islamicists and Biblical or Semitic scholars have associated the Greek- Syriac [lost (proto-) Arabic?] Diatessaron with the Injil (Gospel[s]) of the Qur'ān...


Abu'l-Faraj `Abd-Allāh al-Iraqi or Ibn al-Ṭayyib (d. 435/1043)

Physician, philosopher, theologian. biblical commentator, Nestorian monk and secretary of the katholikos Elias I. He belonged to the philosophical school of Baghdad founded by Abu Bishr Matta ibn Yunus (d. 328/940) and Yahya ibn `Adi (d. 363/974).

The diatessaron was perhaps ( re-?) translated from the Syriac into Arabic by the Nestorian monk Abu'l-Faraj `Abd-Allāh al-Iraqi or Ibn al-Ṭayyib (d.435/1043). His translation is known as Firdaws al-Naṣrāniyya ("The Christian Paradise") -- there also exists his Fiqh al-Naṣrāniyya ("The Christian Jurisprudence")... Refer the J. Vernet entry `Ibn al-Ṭayyib...' in EI2 vol. III: 955, which reads as follows:

"... Nestorian monk, physician, philosopher and theologian known in mediaeval Europe under the name of Abulpharagius Abdalla Benattibus. He studied and worked at the `Aḍudī hospital of Baghdad, was the secretary of the katholikos Elias I, and died in 435/1043. The physicians Ibn Buṭlān, `Alī b. `Īsā and Abu 'l-Ḥusayn al-Baṣrī were his pupils. An inventory of his works of Christian exegesis has been made by Graf: there may be mentioned especially the Firdaws al-Naṣrāniyya, the Arabic translation of the Diatessaron of Tatian, and the Fikh al-Naṣrāniyya (ed. W. Hoenerbach and O. Spies, Louvain 1956). In philosophy he wrote several commentaries on works of Aristotle, on the Isagoge of Porphyry [see FURFŪRIYŪS] (the text mentioned by Brockelmann I, 233 Logic no. 4 is to be attributed to Ibn al-Tayyib and not to al-Fārābī; cf. S. M. Stern, in BSOAS, xix (1957), 419-25). He wrote a commentary on the Tabula Cebetis of Ibn Miskawayh [q.v.]. In medicine he wrote abridgements of Hippocrates, Aristotle and Galen." Bibliography:

Ibn al-Kifti, ed. J. Lippert, 233 al-Bayhaki, Tatimma, ed. M. Shafi, Lahore 1935, 27 Barhebraeus, Mukhtasar, ed. Salhani, Beirut 1890, 330 Ibn Abi Usaybi`a, Beirut 1377/1957, i, 241 Brockelmann, I, 635, S I, 884 G. Sarton, Introduction to the history of science, i, Baltimore 1927, 730 G. Graf, Geschichte der christlichen arabischen Litteratur, ii, 160-76 F. Wüstenfeld, Geschichte der arabischen Aerzte, Göttingen 1840, 132, 78 Leclerc, Histoire de la medecine arabe, Paris 1876, i, 486-8. (J. Vernet) Extract from the Encyclopaedia of Islam Leiden: Brill,

For a useful, up to date discussion of the authorship of the Arabic diatessaron see Joosse 1997 VI pp. 38-44. Manuscripts or fragments of the Diatessaron of Tatian and closely related texts existed in a variety of languages, including Syriac, Greek, Arabic, Parthian, Persian, Armenian, Coptic, Georgian, Latin and Old High German, etc (for some details see Petersen, 1994: Appendix 1). The Arabic and Persian renderings are among the more ancient and important. Modern critical editions of the Greek New Testament include occasional variant readings indicated in the Arabic diatessaron (=T A ). Tatian composed his Gospel harmony from antecedent or pre-canonical forms of the New Testament Gospels (Petersen, 1994:1). Arthur Voobus opens his Early Versions of the New Testament as follows:

"In the history of the versions, as well as the early phase of textual developments of the New Testament as a whole, there is no greater and more important name than Tatian. This is not an overstatement" ( PETSE 6, Stockholm, 1964).

Much valuable information on Ibn al-Tayyib and his writings can be found in Ch.2 of Cleophea Ferrari

Der Kategorienkommentar von Abu'l-Farag `Abdallah Ibn at-Tayyib. Texte und Untersuchungen Leiden: E. J. Brill, (Aristoteles Semitico-Latinus 19), 2006.

دياطاسارون الذي جمعه طظيانوس من الميشرين الأربعة

The Arabic Diatessaron of Tatian (c. 120-173 CE).

The Arabic translation (from the Greek or Syriac?) of the Diatesssaron (c. 170s CE?) of Tatian (d. 173 CE) by the Nestorian Christian physician, philosopher and commentator on the Greek classics, `Abu'l-Faraj `Abd-Allāh al-Iraqī = Ibn al-Ṭayyib (d. 435/1043). See EI2 vol. III: 955.

For details of the mss. of the Arabic diatessaron see Graf, GAL 1: 150-5 No. 34.3; Peterson 1994:448-451. Major mss. include:

  • Rome Vatican Arab 14 XII/XIII.
  • Rome Vatican Arab Borg. arab. 250 XIV
  • Cairo Coptic Patriarchate Ms. 67.
  • Oxford Bodleian Arab e 163 1806
  • Aleppo Paul Sbath No. 1020 1791
  • Beirut Jesuit Library No. 429 1332

From Petersen, 1994: 449: "Beirut Fragments" : EDITIONS (text and German translation): Ģ. Graf, pp. 63-71, in S. Euringer, Die Überlieferung der Arabischen Ubersetzung des Diatessarons. These Fragments were not used by Marmardji in his edition. Aleppo Paul Sbath No. 1280 XVIII CATALOGUE: P. Sbath, Bibliothèque de Manuscrits, Vol. 3 (Le Caire 1934), 92: "le Diatessaron . .. 376 pages . . . XVIII siècle."

Plus 5 other manuscripts in private hands, locations and ages unknown.


Geschichte der christlichen Arabischen Literatur, Vol. I, StT 118 (Città del Vaticano 1944), 154.


The Arabic version of the Diatesssaron (Greek: “From Four,” or “Out of Four”), is a New Testament Gospel Harmony going back to the Christian apologist and ultimately encratitic ascetic Tatian (d. c. 173 CE). The Arabic translation is extant in around seven mss. dating from the 11th/12th centuries CE until the 19th century. There may well be earlier lost Arabic translations of the Diatessaron...

Printed texts of the Arabic Diatessaron

Ciasca, P. Agostino (ed.), "scriptor" at the Vatican Library. 1888.

1888 +Rep. Rome 1914+1934. Tatiani Evengeliorum Harmoniae Arabice / Nunc primum ex duplici codice edidit et translatione latina Augustinius Ciasca = دياطاسارون الذي جمعه طظيانوس من الميشرين الأربعة

Diatessaron, which Titianus Compiled from the Four Gospels = [Latin title] Tatiani Evangeliorum Harmonicae, Arabice.

In "two parts-the text, covering a little over 209 very clearly printed Arabic pages, and a Latin half, comprising a scholarly introduction (pp. v.-xv.), a Latin translation (pp. 1-99), and a table showing the order in which the passages taken from the gospels occur in the text." The editor is P. Agostino Ciasca, a well-known Orientalist.. Note also Α. Ciasca's:

"De Tatiani Diatessaron Arabica Versione," in Vol. 4 of J. B. Pitra, Analecta Sacra Spicilegio Solesmensi (Parisiis 1883), 465-87.

Hill, J. Hamlyn 1894 [+1910] English trans. based on the Latin of Ciacasa

The Earliest Life of Christ ever compiled from the Four Gospels being the Diatessaron of Tatian literally translated from the Diatassaron of Tatian, Edinburgh 1894 + Abridges ed. 1900.

Hogg, Hoppe W.1910

`Tatian's Diatessaron' in The Ante-Nicene Christian Fathers vol. 10 (Additional vol.) ed. A. Menzies (Grand Rapids 1969 5), 63-129.

Introduction URL = http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/info/diatessaron.html

Reprint Gorgias Press, 2001 ISBN = 0-9713097-2-8 (Pbk).

Preuschen, Erwin (d.1920) .,

1918 Untersuchungen zum Diatessaron Tatians, Sitzungsberichte der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philosophisch-historische Klasse Jahrgang 1918, 15. Abhandlung, Heidelberg, 1918

Preuschen, Erwin + August Pott, (eds.) 1926

Tatian's Diatessaron aus dem Arabischen ubersetzt, eds. Preuschen, Erwin + A. Pott, Heidelberg, 1926 -- the posthumously published German trans.

Marmardji, A.-S., 1935

Diatessaron de Tauen. Texte arabe établi, traduit en français, collationé avec les anciennes versions syriaques, suivi d'un évangéliaire diatessarique syriaque et accompagné de quatre planches hors texte. Beirut 1935. Important edition based on a new Beirut mss. According to Peterson "Marmardji's edition is standard today" (1994: 449).

Margoliouth, D. S., 1937

Review A.-S Marmardji, "Diatessaron de Tätien", Beirut 1935, in: Journal of Theological Studies, XXXVIII (1937), 76-79

Peters, Curt 1939

Das Diatessaron Tatians (Orientalia Christiana Analecta) 123, Rome: 1939 (pp.19-29,207).

Higgins, A. J. B. 1944-5

[Ph, D thesis =] `Tatian's Diatessaron, Introductory Studies, with a portion of the Arabic Version' (dissertation, Manchester [England] 1945).

A summary of the above is "Tatian's Diatessaron," which appeared in JMUES 24 (1942-45) but published in 1947, pp. 28-32;

"The Arabic Version of Tatian's Diatessaron," JThS 45 (1944), 187-199.

`The Persian Gospel Harmony as a Witness to Tatian's Diatessaron' in The Journal of Theological Studies 1952 III (1): 83-87.

`Tatian's Diatessaron and the Arabic and Persian Harmonies,' in Studies in New Testament Language and Text (= Festschrift G. D. Kilpatrick), Leiden 1976, pp. 246-261

Nanne Pieter Joosse 1997

The Sermon on the Mount in the Arabic Diatessaron Amsterdam 1997. This important thesis contains an excellent summary of research upon the Arabic diatessaron and details of the extant mss.

Joosse, Peter

ADD in Oriens christianus (Oriens christ.) vol. 83, (1999) pp. 72-129.

The Persian Harmony or translation of the Diatessaron (13th century CE?).

Mss. = Florence Bib Laurent Cod Ms. Or. XVII (81) 1547

Refer: Bibliothecae Mediceae Lavrentianae et Palatinae Codicvm mms. Orientalivm Catalogus, ed. S.E. Assemani (Florentiae 1742), 59-61.

Apparently translated by a Jacobite layman of Tabriz named Īwānnis `Īzz al-Dīn ("John, the Glory of the Religion") (see Metzger, Early Versions, 1977: 17-19).

The Edition can be found in

Diatessaron Persiano, i. introduzione: ii. Testo e traduzione. Biblica et Orientalia N. 14. Rome, 1951.

Diatessaron Persiano, ed. G. Messina, BibOr 14 (Rome 1951).

Papers and notices include:

Messina, G. 1942-3

`Un Diatessaron persiano del sec. XIII tradotto dal siriaco,' Bib. 23 (1942), 286-305; 24 (1943), 59-106.

Notizia su un Diatessaron Persiano tradotto dal Siriaco, BibOr 10 (Rome 1943);

Metzger, B.M. 1950, 1963

"Tatian's Diatessaron and a Persian Harmony of the Gospels," JBL 69 (1950), 261-80 = also

Chapters in the History of New Testament Textual Criticism, NTTS 4 (Leiden 1963), 97-120.

Higgins, A J. B. 1952

"The Persian Gospel Harmony as a Witness to Tatian's Diatessaron," JThS N.S. 3 (1952), 83-87;

"The Persian and Arabic Gospel Harmonies," Studia Evangelica, ed. K. Aland, TU 73 (Berlin 1959), 793-810.

"Tatian's Diatessaron and the Arabic and Persian Harmonies," in Studies in New Testament Language and Text (Festschrift G.D. Kilpatrick) (Leiden 1976), 246-261.


Translations and Articles

Zahn, J. C., 1814

Tatian՝s Evangelien-Harmonie (unpublished), Beilage Nro.A (with the first and last folium in the transcription of J. D. Åkerblad and in the translation of E. F. K. Rosenmüller). (so Joose 1997 bib.). Ist Ammon oder Tatian Verfasser des ins Lateinische, Altfränkische und Arabische übersetzten Evangelienharmonie?..., in: C. A. G. Keil and H. G. Tzschirner (ed.),AASEST. lI:1 Leipzig 1814, 165-210.

Zahn, Th., 1881>

Tatians Diatessaron (FGNKI), Erlangen 1881. The process of essay writing will be much easier with MarvelousEssays.Com as there are a lot of highly professional and talented writers who are always eager to help you out with any sort of academic assignments regardless of the complexity levels. I do know what I�m talking about!

Cardinal Pitra's neueste Beiträge zur vornicänischen Kirchenliteratur, in: Zeitschrifte fur Kirchliche Wissenschatf und Kirchliches Leben, 5 (1884), 617-630; 6 (1885), 23-29.

Das ursprüngliche Neue Testament der syrischen Kirche, in: Geschichte des neutestamentlichen Kanons I,1 Erlangen-Leipzig 1888, 369-429.

Tatians Diatessaron', in: Geschichte des neutestamentlichen Kanons II, 2, Erlangen-Leipzig 1892, 530-556.

Zur Geschichte von Tatians Diatessaron im Abendland, in: Neue Kirchliche Zeitschrift 5 (1894), 85-120.

Mäher, M., 1893

Recent Evidence for the Authenticity of the Gospels: Tatian's Diatessaron, London 1893.

Harris, J. R. 1895.

Fragments of the Commentary of Ephrem Syrus upon the Diatessaron. London, 1895.

Euringer, S. 1912

Die Uberlieferung der Arabischen Übersetzung des Diatessarons, mit einer Textbeilage: Die Beiruter Fragmente herausgegeben und Ubersetzt von Georg Graf, BSt(F) 17. 2 .Freiburg: 1912.

Preuschen, E., 1918

Untersuchungen zum Diatessaron Tatians, Sitzungsberichte der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philosophisch-historische Klasse Jahrgang 1918, 15. Abhandlung, Heidelberg, 1918

Plooij, D. 1923>

A Primitive Text of the Diatessaron. The Liège Manuscript of a Mediaeval Dutch Translation, Leyden 1923.

A Further Study of the Liège Diatessaron, Leyden 1925.

Plooij, D., + C. A. Phillips, +A. H. A.+ Bakker + A. J. Barnouw, The Liège Diatessaron, fase. 1-8, Amsterdam 1929, 1931, 1933, 1935, 1938, 1963, 1965, 1970 (I = 1-4, II = 5-8).

Burkitt, F.C. 1924

‘Tatian’s Diatessaron and the Dutch Harmonies’ JTS 25 (1924) 113-130.

Preuschen, E., and A. Pott, 1926

Tatians Diatessaron aus dem arabischen übersetzt. Heidelberg 1926.

Sbath, P. 1928

Bibliothèque de Manuscrits Paul Sbath, Vol. 2 (Héliopolis 1928), 135-36: "Ce précieux ms. comprend le Diatessaron intitulé . . . 277 pages . . . Transcrit en 1512 des Martyrs (1791)."

Vaccari, A., 1931

Propaggini del Diatessaron in Occidente, in: Biblica 12 (1931), 326-354.

Peters, C.,

Proben eines bedeutsamen arabischen Evangelientextes, in: OrChr, 3th series 11 (1936) = whole series 33 (1936), 188-211. Das Diatessaron Tatians. Seine Überlieferung und sein Nachwirken im Morgen-und Abendland, sowie der heutige Stand seiner Erforschung, (OrChrA 123), Roma 1939. Von arabischen Evangelientexten in Handschriften der Universitäts-Bibliothek Leiden, m:AcOr 18 (1940), 124-137. Grundsätzliche Bemerkungen zur Frage der arabischen Bibeltexte, in: RSO 20, Roma, 1942, 129-143.

Margoliouth, D. S., 1937

Review A.-S Marmardji, "Diatessaron de Tätien", Beirut 1935, in: Journal of Theological Studies, XXXVIII (1937), 76-79.

Todesco, V., (ed.), 1938

IL Diatessaron Veneto, Part I in: II Diatessaron in Volgare Italiano (StT 81), Città del Vaticano 1938 (1-171).

Beeston, A.F.L 1939

`The Arabic Version of Tatian's Diatssaron' in JRAS (1939), pp.608-610.

Graf, G. 1944

Geschichte der Christlichen Arabischen Literatur, Vol. 1 Rome: 1944 (see pp. 138-70, esp. 150-55).

Metzger, B.M. 1950

‘Tatian’s Diatessaron and a Persian Harmony of the Gospels’ JBL 69 (1950) 261-280;

Messina, G. 1951

Diatessaron Persiano (BO 14; Rome, 1951). The manuscript (Laurentian MS XVII) was copied in 1547 by Ibrahim ben Shamas, from an original from the thirteenth century; which was translated from a Syriac base...

Higgins, A. J. B. 1952

‘The Persian Gospel Harmony as a Witness to Tatian’s Diatessaron,’ JTS 3 (1952) 83-87.

Leloir, L. 1962>

Le témoignage d'Éphrem sur le Diatessaron (CSCO 227; Subsidia 19), Louvain 1962.

Saint Éphrem, Commentaire de l'Évangile concordant, Texte syriaque (Manuscrit Chester Beatty 709), (CBM 8(a)), Dublin 1963.

Saint Éphrem: Le texte de son commentaire du Sermon sur la Montagne, in: Mémorial Dom Jean Gribomont (1920-1986), (StEAug 27), Rome 1988, 361-391.

Saint Éphrem, Commentaire de l'Évangile concordant, Texte syriaque, (Manuscrit Chester Beatty 709), Folios Additionels, CBM no. 8(b), Louvain-Paris 1990.

Saint Éphrem Commentaire de l'Évangile concordant texte syriaque (manuscrit Chester Beatty 709) (CBM 8; Dublin), 1963.

Ortiz de Urbina, L, (ed.), 1967

Biblia Polyglotta Matritensia. Series VI: Vêtus Evangelium Syrorum et exinde excerptum Diatessaron Tätiäni, Madrid 1967.

Bowman, J. 1968

`Temple and Festivals in the Persian Diatessaron' in BZAW 103, pp. 53-61.

Nordenfalk, C., 1968+73

An Illustrated Diatessaron, in: The Art Bulletin 50 (1968), 119-140. The Diatessaron Miniatures Once More, in: The Art Bulletin 55 (1973), 532-546.

Molitor, J., 1969-71

Tatians Diatessaron und sein Verhältnis zur altsyrischen und altgeorgischen Überlieferung, in: OrChr 53 (1969), 1-88; 54 (1970), 1-75; 55 (1971), 1-66.

Baarda, Tjitze 1975

An Archaic Element in the Arabic Diatessaron? (TA 46:18 = John XV 2), Novum Testamentum, Vol. 17, Fasc. 2 (Apr., 1975), pp. 151-155. Aslo printed in Early Transmission of Words of Jesus, 173-77)

Higgins, A. J. B. 1976

`Tatian's Diatessaron and the Arabic and Persian Harmonies,' in Studies in New Testament Language and Text (= Festschrift G. D. Kilpatrick), Leiden 1976, pp. 246-261

Baarda, Tjitze 1983

‘The Author of the Arabic Diatessaron,’ in Early Transmission of Words of Jesus (Amsterdam, 1983), 207-249.

"The Author of the Arabic Diatessaron," Miscellanea Neotestamentica, edd. Tj. Baarda, A.F.J. Klijn and W.C. van Unnik, NT.S 47 (Leiden 1978), I, 61-103 also in idem, Early Transmission of the Words of Jesus: Thomas, Tatian and the Text of the New Testament [Amsterdam 1983], 239-246);

"To the Roots of the Syriac Diatessaron Tradition (TA 25:1-3)," NT 28 (1986), 1-25.

Baarda, Tjitze 1994

Essays on the Diatessaron. Kampen: Kok Pharos, 1994. 320pp.

Petersen, William. L. 1985>.. 1990...1994, 1995...

The Diatessaron and Ephrem Syrus as Sources of Romanos the Melodist (CSCO 475; Lovain, 1985), 26-39.

The Diatessaron and Ephrem Syrus as Sources of Romanos the Melodist, (CSCO 475; Subsidia 74), Louvain 1985.

New Evidence for the Question of the Original Language of the Diatessaron, in: W. Schrage (ed.): Studien zum Text und zur Ethik des Neuen Testaments. Festschrift zum 80. Geburtstag von Heinrich Greeven, (BZNW 47), New York-Berlin 1986, 325-343.

"Textual evidence of Tatian's dependence upon Justin's Apomnemonegmata, New Testament Studies 36 (1990) 512-534.

Tatian's Diatessaron: Its Creation, Dissemination, Significance, and History ...Larger Image

1994 Tatian's Diatessaron. Its Creation, Dissemination, Significance, & History in Scholarship, (Supplements to Vigiliae Christianae, volume XXV), Leiden - New York -Köln : Brill, 1994.

Edwards, O. C. 1985

‘Diatessaron or Diatessara?’ Studia Patristica XVI (ed E. A. Livingstone; TU 129; Berlin, 1985) 92.

Elliot, J. K. 1987

`The Arabic Diatessaron in the New Oxford Edition of the Gospel According to St. Luke in Greek : Additional Note.' in J Theol Studies. 38 (1987), 135

Head Peter M. 1992

Tatian's Christology and its Influence on the Composition of the Diatessaron in Tyndale Bulletin 43.1(1992), 121-137.


Lyon, J. P., 1994

Syriac Gospel Translations: a comparison of the language and translation method used in the Old Syriac, the Diatessaron and the Peshitto, (CSCO 548; Subsidia 88), Louvain 1994.

Leslie McFall, 1994.

"Tatian's Diatessaron: Mischievous or Misleading?" Westminster Theological Journal vol. 56 (1994) 87-114.

McCarthy, C. 1993.

Saint Ephraem’ s Commentary on Tatians ’ Diatessaron: An English Translation of Chester Beatty Syriac Ms 709 with introduction and notes (JSS Supp 2) Oxford: OUP, 1993.

McCarthy, Carmel 1994.

Saint Ephrem's Commentary on Tatian's Diatessaron: An English Translation of Chester Beatty Syriac MS 709 with Introduction and Notes. Oxford University Press. ISBN = 9780199221639.

Elliott J. K. 1995 (review)

Tatian's Diatessaron. Its Creation, Dissemination, Significance and History in Scholarship by William L. Petersen + Essays on the Diatessaron by T. Baarda + Saint Ephrem's Commentary on Tatian's Diatessaron by C. McCarthy, Review by : J. K. Elliott in Novum Testamentum, Vol. 37, Fasc. 4 (Oct., 1995), pp. 401-403

Joosse, Nanne Pieter, George. 1997

The Sermon on the Mount in the Arabic Diatessaron. Doctoral dissertation Free University of Amsterdam. (428pp.). ISBN 90-9010131-4


F. Sepmeijer

Novum Testamentum, Vol. 41, Fasc. 3 (Jul., 1999), 297-300.

Joosse, Peter

ADD in Oriens christianus (Oriens christ.) vol. 83, (1999) pp. 72-129 Abstract =

"L'histoire de la recherche au sujet du Diatessaron arabe qui débute en 1719 est retracée. L'A. étudie les différents manuscrits existant : le texte arabe est conservé dans sept manuscrits plus ou moins complets. Ils s'échelonnent du 13e au 19e siècles. L'A. présente les diverse éditions, les traductions, le langage et l'auteur du Diatessaron arabe. Il suppose que le texte arabe original est une traduction du texte syriaque du Diatessaron qui a souvent subi des révisions selon la Peshitta. Il reconstruit le texte original du Diatessaron en établissant une comparaison avec les textes syriaques disponibles."

Baarda, Tjitze, 2001.

`The `Foolish' or 'Deaf' Fig-Tree Concerning Luke 19:4 in the Diatessaron' in Novum Testamentum vol. 43/2 (2001), 161-177.

Jan Joosten, 2001-2

"Tatian's Diatessaron and the Old Testament Peshitta" Journal of Biblical Literature, Vol. 120, No. 3 (Autumn, 2001), 501-523

"The Gospel of Barnabas and the Dietessaron" Harvard Theological Review 95.1 (2002), 73-96.

Cook, John Granger: 2007

`A Note on Tatian's Diatessaron, Luke, and the Arabic Harmony' in Zeitschrift für Antikes Christentum [ISSN: 0949-9571 | Electronic ISSN: 1612-961X] Volume: 10 / 3 June 2007 pp. 462-471





The following manuscripts of Arabic Gospels were identified by Peters:

Peters, C.

Das Diatessaron Tatians, OrChrA 123 (Roma 1939), 48-62;

"Proben eines bedeutsamen arabischen Evangelientextes," OrChr 33 [III.ll] (1936), 188-211.

Baumstark, Α.

"Das Problem eines vorislamischen chrisüich-kirchlichen Schrifttums _in arabischer Sprache," Islamica 5 (1931), 562-575;

"Arabische Ubersetzung eines altsyrischen Evangelientextes," in OrChr 31 [= ΙΙΙ.9] (1934), 165-188;

Berlin Staatsbibliothek Or. oct. 1108 —


В. Levin,

Die griechisch-arabische Evangelien-Übersetzung. Vat. Borg. ar. 95 und Ber. orient, oct. 1108 (Uppsala 1938).

W. Heffening, and C. Peters,

"Spuren des Diatessaron in liturgischer Uberlieferung. Ein türkischer und ein Karsuni-Text," OrChr 32 [III.10] (1935), 232.

Leipzig Universitätsbib. MS 1059A — CATALOGUE:

Katalog der Handschriften der Universitäts-Bibliothek zu Leipzig. II. Katalog der Islamischen, Christlich-Orientalischen, Jüdischen und Samaritanischen Handschriften, ed. K. Vollers (Leipzig 1906), 373-74. "the MS is also catalogued as "Codex Tischendorf 31"; it consists of 2 folios containing fragments of Matthew." (Petersen, 1994:450)

Leiden mss. : Leiden Universiteitsbib. 2376 1179 + Leiden Universiteitsbib. 2377 1331

+ Leiden Universiteitsbib. 2378 1511

CATALOGUE: These three Leiden MSS (2376, 2377, 2378) are found, respectively, in the Catalogus Codicum Orientalium Bibliothecae Academiae Lugduno-Batavae, Vol. 5, ed. M.J. de Goeje (Lugduni 1873), 81-82, 82, 82-83.

Oxford Bodleian Arab, christ.

Nicoll 15 (299)

Rome Vatican Borg. arab. 71 —

Rome Vatican Borg. arab. 95 —

Berlin Staatsbibliothek Or. oct. 1108

STUDIES: В. Levin,

Die griechisch-arabische Evangelien-Übersetzung. Vat. Borg. ar. 95 und Ber. orient, oct. 1108 (Uppsala 1938).

Rome Vatican Arab. 13 — Rome Vatican Arab. 17 —

Rome Vatican Arab. 18 — Rome Vatican Arab. 467 —

St. Petersburg Asiatic Museum D 226 —

STUDIES: W. Heffening, and C. Peters,

"Spuren des Diatessaron in liturgischer Überlieferung. Ein türkischer und ein Karsuni-Text," OrChr32 [= III. 10] (1935), 232, "speaks of the text of both this MS and Berlin Or. oct. 1108 as strongly permeated with Tatianisms." (Petersen 1994:451)

Isaac Velasquez, Arabic Translation of the Gospels STUDIES: A. Baumstark,

"Markus Kap. 2 in der arabischen Übersetzung des Isaak Velasquez Veröffentlicht und unter dem Gesichtspunkt des Zusammenhangs mit dem Diatessaron gewürdigt," OrChr 31 (= III.9) (1934), 226-239; see also C. Peters, Das Diatessaron Tatians, OrChrA 123 (Roma 1939), 175-77. Karshuni1 Manuscripts Rome Vatican Syr. 52 c. XVI

EDITION: W. Heffening and C. Peters,

"Spuren des Diatessaron in liturgischer Uberlieferung. Ein türkischer und ein Karsuni-Text," OrChr 32 [= III.10] (1935), 225-238. "The relevant portion of the MS is ff. 11Γ-112Γ; the Karshuni text contains a fragment of a Wedding rite, including Matt 19.3-11. The Turkish text, written in Syriac script, is on the same folios, and contains Matt 19.9-11." (Petersen 1994:451).

STUDIES: W. Heffening and C. Peters,

"Spuren" (the edition, cited above); C. Peters, Das Diatessaron Tatians, 61-62, 88-89.

Rome Vatican Syr. 197 1488

REFERENCE: A. Baumstark,

"Eine frühislamische und eine vorislamische arabische Evangelienübersetzung aus dem Syrischen," Atti del XIX Congresso Internazionak degli Orientalisti, Roma, 23 -29 Settembre 1935 (Roma 1938), 682-84;

C. Peters, Das Diatessaron Tatians, 59.



See I. Kannengiesser,

` The Greek Apologists, Tatian the Syrian' in Handbook of Patristic Exegesis Vol.1 (Leiden, Boston: Brill, 2004) pp. 439-444.


Oratio ad Graecos, ed. E. Schwartz, TU 4. 1, Leipzig 1888. Oratio ad Graecos, ed. J. C. Th. Otto, CACSS 6, lenae 1851+ Rep. Wiesbaden 1969.

Pusey, Ph. E., and Gwilliam, G. H., (ed.),

Tetraevangelium sanctum iuxta simplicem Syrorum ver sianem, Oxford 1901.

source: http://www.hurqalya.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/BIBLIOGRAPHY-HYP/bibles.%20or/ARABIC%20DIATESSARON.htm